Horus the Falcon at Edfu Temple
Horus the Falcon at Edfu Temple

Horus is one of the oldest and most significant deities in ancient Egyptian religion, and was worshipped from at least the late Predynastic period through to Greco-Roman times. Different forms of Horus are recorded in history, and are treated as distinct gods by Egypt specialists. These various forms may possibly be different perceptions of the same multi-layered deity in which certain attributes are emphasized, not necessarily in opposition but complementary to one another, consistent with how the Ancient Egyptians viewed the multiple facets of reality. He was most often depicted as a falcon or as a man with a falcon head.

The earliest recorded form of Horus is the patron deity in Upper Egypt, who is the first known national god, specifically related to the king who in time came to be regarded as a manifestation of Horus in life and Osiris in death. The most commonly encountered family relationship describes Horus as the son of Isis and Osiris but in another tradition Hathor is regarded as his mother and sometimes as his wife. Horus served many functions in the Egyptian pantheon, most notably being the god of the sun, war and protection.

The Pharaoh with the head of a falcon at Philae Temple
The Pharaoh with the head of a falcon (just left of centre) at Philae Temple

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